International TreatiesThe Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
- Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna, 1985) (Vienna Convention)
The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution
- Decision 81/462 concluding the Convention by the Community (OJ L171 of 27 June 1981)
This is one of the central agreements for protection of the environment. It forms a vital framework for the protection of health and environment against transboundary air pollution. The Convention was signed at the high ministerial meeting, in Geneva, in 1979, by 34 Governments and the European Community. Since it entered into force in 1983, it has been extended by eight specific protocols.
- Gothenburg Protocol to abate acidification, eutropication and ground-level ozone. (1999)
During an UNECE meeting, in December 2006, it was said that Europe is doing well on international air pollution targets and developing well towards achieving the air pollution reduction targets set under the Gothenburg protocol. However, despite the general good European performance one should not overlook the differences in individual countries’ performances.
- Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (1998)
Signed by 28 parties and entered into force on 23 October 2003.
This protocol focuses on a list of sixteen substances that are considered particularly harmful to the environment and health. This list includes eleven pesticides, two industrial chemicals and three by-products/contaminants.
- Aarhus Protocol on heavy metals (1998)
Sigend by 28 parties and entered into force on 29 December 2003.
This Protocol target three particularly harmful metals, namely: lead, cadmium and mercury.
- Oslo Protocol on further reduction of Sulphur emissions (1994)
Signed by 27 parties and entered into force on 5 August 1998.
- Geneva Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes (1991)
Signed by 21 parties and entered into force on 29 September 1997.
- Sofia Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or their Transboundary Fluxes (1988)
Signed by 31 parties and netered into force on 14 February 1991
- Helsinki Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent (1985)
Signed by 23 parties and entered into force on 2 September 1987.
- Geneva Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (1984)
Signed by 42 parties and entered into force on 28 january 1988.