Dr Berenice Boutin

Senior researcher

  • Department:
    Research Department


Dr Berenice Boutin is a senior researcher in international law at the Asser Institute. Her work focuses on international responsibility, security, and new technologies.

Berenice is project leader of the research project Designing International Law and Ethics into Military Artificial Intelligence (DILEMA), funded by NWO–MVI (2020–2024). This interdisciplinary project explores the conditions and modalities that would allow to leverage the potential benefits of AI technologies in the military while abiding by the rule of law and ethical values. It investigates why is it essential to safeguard human agency over certain functions and activities, where it is most critical to maintain the role of human agents in order to ensure legal compliance and accountability, and how to technically ensure that military technologies are designed and deployed in line with ethical and legal frameworks.

She initiated and coordinates the Asser Institute’s Winter Academy on Artificial Intelligence and International Law. She is member of the Editorial Board of OXIO, and Associate Fellow with the SHARES Project.

Berenice previously received funding from Gerda Henkel Stiftung for a research project on the Conceptual and Policy Implications of Increasingly Autonomous Military Technologies for State Responsibility Under International Law (2018-2019). She has been Managing Editor of the Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (2016–2019), and Research Fellow at the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (ICCT) (2015–2018).

She has presented her work at various international venues including the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law (Cambridge), the United Nations Headquarters (New York), the Commission Nationale Consultative des Droits de l’Homme (Paris), the Swedish Defence University (Stockholm), the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (Warsaw), the International Institute for Justice and the Rule of Law (Malta).

Berenice completed her PhD at the University of Amsterdam (2015) on the topic of Allocation of International Responsibility in Collaborative Military Operations, under the supervision of Professor André Nollkaemper, as part of the SHARES Project on Shared Responsibility in International Law.


Selected Publications

  • State Responsibility in Relation to Military AI Technologies: Mapping the Issues, Background Paper (January 2020)
  • Shared Responsibility for Cyber Operations, 113 AJIL Unbound, pp 197-201 (2019)
  • Technologies for International Law & International Law for Technologies, Blog of the Groningen Journal of International Law (October 2018)
  • Artificial Intelligence and International Law: Exploring Issues of Responsibility and Regulation (co-authored with Haye Hazenberg and Jeroen van den Hoven), position paper, TU Delft Pilot Program on Responsible Innovation for the Sustainable Development Goals, Project 12 (June 2018)
  • Responsibility in Connection with the Conduct of Military Partners, 56 Military Law and the Law of War Review, pp 57-86 (2018)
  • Attribution of Conduct in International Military Operations: A Causal Analysis of Effective Control, 18(2) Melbourne Journal of International Law, pp 154–179 (2017)
  • Administrative Measures in Counter-Terrorism and the Protection of Human Rights, 27(1–2) Security and Human Rights (2016), pp 128–147
  • Towards a European Position on the Use of Armed Drones? A Human Rights Approach (co-authored with Christophe Paulussen and Jessica Dorsey), ICCT Report (October 2016)
  • The Role of Control in Allocating International Responsibility in Collaborative Military Operations, Doctoral thesis, University of Amsterdam (October 2015)
  • Case note, The Netherlands v Nuhanovic, Dutch Supreme Court, 6 September 2013, Oxford Reports on International Law, ILDC 2061 (NL 2013)
  • Responsibility of the Netherlands for the Acts of Dutchbat in Nuhanovic and Mustafic: The Continuous Quest for a Tangible Meaning for “Effective Control” in the Context of Peacekeeping, 25(2) Leiden Journal of International Law (2012), pp 521–535
  • Responsibility in Multinational Military Operations: A Review of Recent Practice, SHARES Expert Seminar Report (December 2011)