Asser International Sports Law Blog

Our International Sports Law Diary
The Asser International Sports Law Centre is part of the T.M.C. Asser Instituut

Resolution of Disputes Arising From Football Contracts in Turkey. By N. Emre Bilginoglu

Editor’s note: N. Emre Bilginoglu[1] is a lawyer based in Istanbul. His book entitled “Arbitration on Football Contracts” was published in 2015.


With a total market value of approximately 911 million EUR, the Turkish Super League ranks as one of the prominent football leagues in Europe. Five of the eighteen teams that make up half of the total market value are based in Istanbul, a busy megalopolis that hosts a population of fifteen million inhabitants.[2] As might be expected, the elevated market value brings forth a myriad of disputes, mainly between the clubs and the players. However, other crucial actors such as coaches and agents are also involved in some of the disputes. These actors of the football industry are of all countries, coming from various countries with different legal systems.

One corollary of rapid globalisation is the development of transnational law, which is quite visible in the lex sportiva.[3] Like foreign investors, foreign actors of the sports industry look for some legal security before signing a contract. FIFA does protect these foreign actors in some way, providing players and coaches legal remedies for employment-related disputes of an international dimension. But what if the legal system of the FIFA member association does not provide a reasonable legal remedy for its national actors?[4] More...

The World Anti-Doping System at a Crossroads

“One day Alice came to a fork in the road and saw a Cheshire cat in a tree. ‘Which road do I take?’ she asked. ‘Where do you want to go?’ was his response. ‘I don’t know,’ Alice answered. ‘Then,’ said the cat, ‘it doesn’t matter.”

Tomorrow the Foundation Board of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) will gather in Glasgow for its most important meeting since the creation of the Agency. Since the broadcasting of a documentary alleging systematic doping in Russian athletics by the German public broadcaster in December 2014, the anti-doping world has been in disarray. The various independent investigations (the Pound Report and the McLaren Report) ordered by WADA into doping allegations against Russian athletes have confirmed the findings of the documentary and the truth of the accusations brought forward by Russian whistle-blowers. Undeniably, there is something very rotten in the world anti-doping system. The current system failed to register a widespread, and apparently relatively open, state-sponsored scheme aimed at manipulating any doping test conducted in Russian territory. Moreover, it was not WADA that uncovered it, but an independent journalist supported by courageous whistle-blowers. More...

The EU State aid and sport saga: The Real Madrid Decision (part 1)

Out of all the State aid investigations of recent years involving professional football clubs, the outcome of the Real Madrid case was probably the most eagerly awaited. Few football clubs have such a global impact as this Spanish giant, and any news item involving the club, whether positive or negative, is bound to make the headlines everywhere around the globe. But for many Spaniards, this case involves more than a simple measure by a public authority scrutinized by the European Commission. For them, it exemplifies the questionable relationship between the private and the public sector in a country sick of never-ending corruption scandals.[1] Moreover, Spain is only starting to recover from its worst financial crisis in decades, a crisis founded on real estate speculation, but whose effects were mostly felt by ordinary citizens.[2] Given that the Real Madrid case involves fluctuating values of land that are transferred from the municipality to the club, and vice versa, it represents a type of operation that used to be very common in the Spanish professional football sector, but has come under critical scrutiny in recent years.[3] More...

International and European Sports Law – Monthly Report – October 2016. By Kester Mekenkamp.

Editor’s note: This report compiles all relevant news, events and materials on International and European Sports Law based on the daily coverage provided on our twitter feed @Sportslaw_asser. You are invited to complete this survey via the comments section below, feel free to add links to important cases, documents and articles we might have overlooked.  

The Headlines
We are looking for an International Sports Law Intern (with a particular interest in the CAS)! More information can be found here.

The (terrible) State of the World Anti-Doping System

The fight against doping is still on top of the agenda after the Russian doping scandal. The national anti-doping organizations (NADOs) have reiterated their call for an in depth reform of the World Anti-Doping Agency at a special summit in Bonn, Germany. These reforms are deemed urgent and necessary to “restore confidence of clean athletes and those who value the integrity of sport” and secure “the public’s desire for a fair and level playing field”. The NADOs propose, amongst others things, to separate the investigatory, testing and results management functions from sports organizations, and to remove sports administrators from crucial anti-doping executive functions. More...

Taking the Blue Pill or the Red Pill: Should Athletes Really Check their Medications against the Prohibited List Personally? - A Comment by Marjolaine Viret (University of Neuchâtel )

Editor's Note:  Marjolaine is an attorney admitted to the Geneva bar (Switzerland) who specialises in sports and life sciences.   She currently participates as a scientific collaborator at the University of Neuchâtel on a research project to produce the first article-by-article legal commentary of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. Her latest book Evidence in Anti-Doping at the Intersection of Science & Law was published in 2016 in the International Sports Law Book Series of T.M.C. ASSER Press.


On 30 September 2016, a panel of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (“CAS”) rendered its award in the matter opposing high-profile tennis player Maria Sharapova to the International Tennis Federation (“ITF”). Maria Sharapova was appealing the two-year ban imposed on her by the ITF Tribunal in June 2016 for her use of Meldonium, a substance newly added to the WADA Prohibited List 2016[1]. Since neither the ITF nor WADA had chosen to challenge the Tribunal’s decision, the stakes of the case were rather simple: would the player convince the CAS panel that she should benefit from a finding of “No Significant Fault or Negligence”[2], thereby allowing for a reduction of the sanction down to a minimum of one year, or should the decision of the Tribunal be upheld? In its award, the CAS panel decided to grant such finding and reduced the sanction to 15 months.

This blog does not purport to be a ‘comment’ on the CAS award. Rather, it seeks to place the Sharapova matter into a broader context with respect to a specific issue: the expectations on Athletes when it comes to their awareness of the prohibited character of a substance, specifically when taking a medication[3]. In July 2016, I presented at the T.M.C Asser Institute in The Hague various current challenges of anti-doping that the Meldonium cases exposed (see the video here). One of these challenges concerned the modalities for including new substances onto the Prohibited List. This blog represents a follow-up on my presentation, in the light of the findings contained in the CAS award. More...

Case note: State aid Decision on the preferential corporate tax treatment of Real Madrid, Athletic Bilbao, Osasuna and FC Barcelona

On 28 September 2016, the Commission published the non-confidential version of its negative Decision and recovery order regarding the preferential corporate tax treatment of Real Madrid, Athletic Bilbao, Osasuna and FC Barcelona. It is the second-to-last publication of the Commission’s Decisions concerning State aid granted to professional football clubs, all announced on 4 July of this year.[1] Contrary to the other “State aid in football” cases, this Decision concerns State aid and taxation, a very hot topic in today’s State aid landscape. Obviously, this Decision will not have the same impact as other prominent tax decisions, such as the ones concerning Starbucks and Apple


This case dates back to November 2009, when a representative of a number of investors specialised in the purchase of publicly listed shares, and shareholders of a number of European football clubs drew the attention of the Commission to a possible preferential corporate tax treatment of the four mentioned Spanish clubs.[2]More...

International and European Sports Law – Monthly Report – September 2016. By Kester Mekenkamp

Editor’s note: This report compiles all relevant news, events and materials on International and European Sports Law based on the daily coverage provided on our twitter feed @Sportslaw_asser. You are invited to complete this survey via the comments section below, feel free to add links to important cases, documents and articles we might have overlooked.

The Headlines

September hosted the very last bit of the sport summer 2016, most notably in the form of the Rio Paralympic Games. Next to the spectacular achievements displayed during these games, in the realm of sports law similar thrilling developments hit town. The first very much expected #Sportslaw highlight was the decision by the German Bundesgerichtshof in the case concerning SV Wilhelmshaven. The second major (less expected) story was the Statement of Objections issued by the European Commission against the International Skating Union.More...

De- or Re-regulating the middlemen? The DFB’s regulation of intermediaries under EU law scrutiny at the OLG Frankfurt. By Antoine Duval and Kester Mekenkamp.

Football intermediaries, or agents, are again under attack in the news. For some, corrupt behaviour has become endemic in football’s culture. It is always dangerous to scapegoat a whole profession or a group of people. Many intermediaries are trying their best to lawfully defend the interests of their clients, but some are not. The key focus should be on providing an adequate legal and administrative framework to limit the opportunities for corrupt behaviour in the profession. This is easier said than done, however. We are dealing with an intrinsically transnationalized business, often conducted by intermediaries who are not subjected to the disciplinary power of federations. Sports governing bodies are lacking the police power and human resources necessary to force the intermediaries to abide by their private standards. In this context, this blog aims to review a recent case in front of the regional court of Frankfurt in Germany, which highlights the legal challenges facing (and leeway available to) national federations when regulating the profession. More...

Case note: TAS 2016/A/4474 Michel Platini c. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. By Marine Montejo

Editor's note: Marine Montejo is a graduate from the College of Europe in Bruges and is currently an intern at the ASSER International Sports Law Centre.

On 3 June 2015, Sepp Blatter resigned as President of FIFA after another corruption scandal inside the world’s football governing body was brought to light by the American authorities supported by the Swiss prosecutor office. Two months after Michel Platini announced he would be a candidate for the next FIFA Presidential election, on 25 September 2015, the Swiss prosecutor opened an investigation against S. Blatter on an alleged disloyal payment he authorised to M. Platini. On 8 October 2015, the FIFA Ethics Committee announced both of them were provisionally suspended upon their hearings, a suspension that was later confirmed by CAS. In the end, M. Platini was sanctioned with an eight years ban from all football activities, later reduced to a six years ban by FIFA Appeal Commission on 24 February 2016. In the meantime, he withdrew his candidacy to become the next FIFA President. On 9 May 2016, after M. Platini appealed this sanction, the CAS confirmed the suspension but reduced it to four years, leading to his resignation from the UEFA presidency and the announcement of his intention to challenge the CAS award in front of the Swiss Federal Tribunal.

On 19 September, the CAS finally published the full text of the award in the dispute between M. Platini and FIFA. The award is in French as M. Platini requested that the procedure be conducted in that language. You will find below a summary of the ‘highlights’ of the 63-page decision. More...

The Russian Ballet at the CAS Ad Hoc Division in Rio - Act V: Saving the last (Russian) woman standing: The Klishina miracle

Editor's note: This is the (belated) fifth part/act of our blog series on the Russian eligibility cases at the CAS ad hoc Division in Rio. The other acts are available at:

Act V: Saving the last (Russian) woman standing: The Klishina miracle 

Darya Klishina is now an Olympic celebrity. She will enter the history books not because she won a gold medal or beat a world record. Instead, her idiosyncrasy lies in her nationality: she was the sole Russian athlete authorized to stand in the athletics competitions at the Rio Olympics. And yet, a few days before the start of the long jumping contest in which she was due to take part, the IAAF surprisingly decided to revoke her eligibility (‘And Then There Were None’). But Klishina appealed the decision to the CAS ad hoc Division and, as all of you well-informed sports lawyers will know, she was allowed to compete at the Olympics and finished at a decent ninth place of the long jump finals.

Two important questions are raised by this case:

  • Why did the IAAF changed its mind and decide to retract Klishina’s authorization to participate?
  • Why did the CAS overturn this decision? More...

Asser International Sports Law Blog | The EU State aid and Sport Saga: Hungary’s tax benefit scheme revisited? (Part 1)

Asser International Sports Law Blog

Our International Sports Law Diary
The Asser International Sports Law Centre is part of the T.M.C. Asser Instituut

The EU State aid and Sport Saga: Hungary’s tax benefit scheme revisited? (Part 1)

The tax benefit scheme in the Hungarian sport sector decision of 9 November 2011 marked a turning point as regards the Commission’s decisional practice in the field of State aid and sport. Between this date and early 2014, the Commission reached a total of ten decisions on State aid to sport infrastructure and opened four formal investigations into alleged State aid to professional football clubs like Real Madrid and Valencia CF.[1] As a result of the experience gained from the decision making, it was decided to include a Section on State aid to sport infrastructure in the 2014 General Block Exemption Regulation. Moreover, many people, including myself, held that Commission scrutiny in this sector would serve to achieve better accountability and transparency in sport governance.[2]

Yet, a recent report by Transparency International (TI), published in October 2015, raises questions about the efficiency of State aid enforcement in the sport sector. The report analyzes the results and effects of the Hungarian tax benefit scheme and concludes that:

“(T)he sports financing system suffers from transparency issues and corruption risks. (…) The lack of transparency poses a serious risk of collusion between politics and business which leads to opaque lobbying. This might be a reason for the disproportionateness found in the distribution of the subsidies, which is most apparent in the case of (football) and (the football club) Felcsút.”[3]

In other words, according to TI, selective economic advantages from public resources are being granted to professional football clubs, irrespective of the tax benefit scheme greenlighted by the Commission or, in fact, because of the tax benefit scheme.

One would expect TI’s report to be a wake-up call for the Commission, triggering it, as “Guardian of the Treaties”, to re-investigate Hungary’s tax benefit scheme without delay. Further incentives to scrutinize the matter is provided by the Hungarian MEP Péter Niedermüller, who in November 2015 officially asked the Commission whether it intended to review its earlier decision to authorize the tax benefit scheme. The Commission’s answer, seen here below, indicates that immediate action is not to be expected.

Not satisfied with this answer, Niedermüller replied that even though the Commission had authorized the tax scheme in 2011, it does not absolve it “from the obligation to proceed with the appropriate care thereafter and to monitor whether the system is operating in accordance with the objectives originally set”.

The overall aim of this two-part blog is to analyze the rules and procedures surrounding the monitoring of previously authorized aid schemes in the sports sector by the Commission. It will use the tax benefit scheme in the Hungarian sport sector decision as a starting point, describing the objective and the functioning of the aid scheme, as well as the conditions and obligations for Hungary and the Commission attached to it. In continuation, basing myself on the findings and conclusions drawn in the report, I will try to determine whether the current practice in Hungary deviates from the original objectives and conditions of the aid scheme, and what the consequences of such a deviation could be. Do the State aid rules impose an obligation upon the Commission to act and, if so, in what way? Furthermore, could the Hungarian case make one reconsider the usefulness of State aid rules to achieve better accountability and transparency in sport in general? 

The tax benefit scheme in the Hungarian sport sector decision

A description of the scheme

In April 2011, the Hungarian authorities notified the Commission of their plans to introduce a tax benefit scheme with the aim of developing the country’s sport sector.[4] More specifically, via the scheme, they hoped to “increase the participation of the general public in sport activities, by inter alia, promoting mass sport events, training of the young generations as well ensuring adequate sport infrastructure and equipment for the general public”. Due to the existence of a market failure (i.e. a situation where individual market investors do not invest even though this would be efficient from a wider economic perspective), Hungary saw itself obligated to provide public money to the sport sector in order to achieve the aforementioned objectives.[5]

Under the scheme, which will run until 30 June 2017, corporations (operating in any sector that is subject to corporate tax) can choose to donate money to sport organizations, both amateur and professional. Sport organizations may use these resources to train the young generation, cover personnel expenses and to construct/renovate sport infrastructure. The donations would be deducted from the corporation’s taxable income and from their tax liability.[6] Hungary decided to focus the aid scheme on the five most popular team sports in the country, i.e. football, basketball, ice hockey, water polo and handball. The reasoning behind this choice is that the scheme would not only benefit the sport organizations themselves, but also the sportsmen and sportswomen using the facilities, as well as the general public interested in attending the sporting events.[7] Sport organizations wishing to receive donations have to elaborate a development programme (DP), in which they outline the planned use of the donations. The DPs are evaluated by the respective national sport governing bodies (SGBs), who decide whether the sport organization is eligible for the donations. Once the SGBs approve a DP, the sport organizations may approach corporations willing to donate money to them.[8]

In the specific case of donations used for the construction, renovation or maintenance of sport infrastructures, Hungary notified the Commission that it had introduced a monitoring system that serves to avoid any misuse of the donations or cross-subsidizations of other activities of sport organizations. The so-called Controlling Authority (a public entity falling directly under the Ministry of National Resources) monitors compliance of donators and beneficiaries with the central price benchmarking mechanism regarding rental and operation fees of the infrastructure, introduced to limit the distortion of competition arising from the tax benefit scheme.[9]  

The Commission’s decision

As stated above, the donations should be used to fund the development of sport infrastructure, train the youth teams and cover personnel expenses. The Commission agreed with Hungary that the training of youth teams falls outside the scope of EU State aid rules, in line with the 2001 Commission Decision Subventions publiques aux clubs sportifs professionels. Donations used to cover personnel costs could be falling under the General Block Exemption Regulation[10] or the de minimis aid Regulation.[11] Compliance with the two Regulations is a task for the Hungarian authorities.[12] Consequently, and taking into account that amateur sport clubs are generally not considered to be undertakings within the meaning of Article 107(1) TFEU, the tax benefit scheme in the Hungarian sport sector decision only covers aid for the infrastructures used by the professional sport organizations.

Although the tax benefit scheme fulfilled the criteria of Article 107(1), and thus constituted State aid, the Commission declared the scheme compatible with EU law under Article 107(3)c) TFEU. Importantly, the Commission held that the scheme was introduced in a sufficiently transparent and proportionate manner, i.e. that the measure was well-designed to fulfil the objective of developing the country’s sport sector.[13] Moreover, the Commission acknowledged the special characteristics of sport and held that the objective of the scheme is in line with the overall objectives of sport as stipulated in Article 165 TFEU, namely that the EU “shall contribute to the promotion of European sporting issues”, because the sport sector “has enormous potential for bringing the citizens of Europe together, reaching out to all, regardless of age or social origin”.[14]

It is worth mentioning that the Commission took a very similar approach in its decisions on the other State aid measures granted for sport infrastructure. It considers a sport infrastructure as embodying a typical State responsibility for which the granting of State aid is a well-defined objective of common interest.[15]

Finally, to ensure that the monitoring and transparency obligations are carried out properly, the Commission requires Hungary to submit an annual report to the Commission, containing inter alia, information on the total aid amount allocated on the basis of this scheme, the sport infrastructure projects funded, their aid intensities, their beneficiaries, the parameters applied for benchmarking prices, the rents effectively paid by the professional sport organizations, as well as a description on the benefits provided to the general public and on the multifunctional usage of the infrastructures.[16] There is no requirement to publish this annual report. Therefore, assessing whether the information provided by Hungary to the Commission is in line with the actual practice in the country is currently extremely difficult. 

Transparency International report, “Corruption Risks in Hungarian Sports Financing”

The tax benefit scheme in the Hungarian sport sector decision looked like a blue print for the way in which public authorities could grant State aid to the sport sector: It was aimed at a wide scope of recipients and the general public would benefit as well, transparency was guaranteed, monitoring and compliance mechanisms were introduced and, last but not least, it was notified in advance to the European Commission. 

Lack of transparency

However, TI’s report shows that, four years after the scheme was launched, little remains of all those good intentions. To start with, TI claims that Hungary’s objective was not to increase the participation of the general public in sport activities, but simply to make Hungarian football clubs “excel at the European and international levels”.[17] TI’s primary finding is that there is a flagrant lack of transparency on every level regarding the scheme. Most of the data collected in the report was obtained by TI through freedom of information requests.[18]

The first flaw in the scheme is that under Hungarian national laws and regulations, there is no obligation to disclose the identity of the donating corporations. Consequently, even though the SGBs keep count of which clubs are entitled to receive donations and how much they actually received, many questions remain on how the money is distributed in practice.

TI also questions the integrity of the clubs’ eligibility process. The Hungarian SGBs, who are in charge of selecting the clubs worthy of receiving donations, are to a large extent run by people with close ties to the Hungarian Government.[19] Moreover, for the selection process, the SBGs do not need to provide a reasoning behind the decision to choose or not to choose a club worthy of donations. As TI states, the tax benefit scheme poses a serious threat to transparency and accountability, and can lead to illicit lobbying and backroom deals between politicians, businessmen and clubs. 

Disproportionate distribution of beneficiaries

The advantage of using a general tax scheme as a State aid measure is that it leads to many different beneficiaries and is therefore considered as one of the least distortive type of state intervention.[20] However, the functioning of this particular tax benefit scheme creates the exact opposite result a few clubs are clearly favored. According to the report, the subsidies from the tax scheme totaled €649 million in four years. An amount of €240 million was specifically designated for football clubs, 37% of the total amount. Of all the money donated to football, 28% (or €68 million) went specifically to 13 football clubs, who, perhaps unsurprisingly, all play in Hungary’s highest football league.[21] Of these 13 football clubs, Puskás Akadémia FC received by far the highest amount, no less than €30 million. Puskás Akadémia FC plays in Hungary’s top division, but also functions as the youth team of Videoton FC, one of Hungary’s biggest and most successful clubs. Interestingly enough, Puskás Akadémia FC was founded in 2007 by the current Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban. 

Unnecessary construction of new sport infrastructure?

The Hungarian authorities expressed the need in 2011 for adequate sport infrastructure facilities. Due to a market failure, it was necessary for the State to step in and provide the necessary funds, albeit by means of a tax benefit scheme. The Commission agreed with Hungary that there is a lack of investments in sport infrastructure and that using public money to do so is an objective of common interest.[22] The TI report indicates that especially the Hungarian football stadiums have undergone significant upgrades since 2011, but at the same time questions the necessity to use public funds for these upgrades. Hungarian professional football has not been attracting more people to stadiums since 2011. The country’s highest division averaged only 4,897 spectators per game for the 2014/15 season, 624 less than in the previous year.[23] An example of potential unnecessary construction of sport infrastructure is the “Nagyerdei” stadium, opened in 2014,  in the city of Debrecen. The stadium, that can hold over 20,000 spectators, cost €40 million to construct. However, with a match average of 3,400,[24] one wonders whether the construction of this stadium was an objective of common interest, or whether there was another, hidden, agenda. Referring to the well-reported, including by the European Commission, close relationships between Hungary’s businesses and its political elite, TI points to the realistic possibility that the construction and renovation of (football) stadiums through public procurement procedures, was simply a way to for contractors to “finance the economic orbit of influential politicians in return for all manners of political and financial favours”.[25]  

Interim conclusion

TI’s report clearly shows that there is a huge discrepancy between Hungary’s intention to devise a tax benefit scheme benefitting to the entire sport sector, as notified to the Commission in 2011, and the actual operation of the scheme. The necessity for new and renovated football infrastructure appears superfluous and the tax benefit scheme itself proved to be more beneficial for some clubs, particularly Puskás Akadémia FC. Furthermore, the Commission decision declaring the tax benefit scheme compatible with EU law highlighted the transparency of the scheme and acclaimed its monitoring mechanisms. More than four years on, it can be concluded that the scheme is far from transparent and questions can be raised on the independence and functioning of the monitoring mechanisms. Assuming that the Commission receives annual reports by the Hungarian authorities on the tax benefit scheme, why has it not undertaken any action? Is it simply a matter of unwillingness or could the answer be found in EU State aid law and its procedural rules itself? The next part of this blog will analyze the rules and procedures surrounding the monitoring of previously authorized aid schemes by the Commission, and determine whether Commission action can be expected.

[1] An explanation on why the public financing of sports infrastructure and professional sports clubs only started to attract State aid scrutiny in recent years can be read in: Ben Van Rompuy and Oskar van Maren, “EU Control of State Aid to Professional Sport: Why Now?” Forthcoming in: “The Legacy of Bosman. Revisiting the relationship between EU law and sport”, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2016.

[2] See for example Oskar van Maren, “EU State Aid Law and Professional Football: A threat or a Blessing?”, European State Aid Law Quarterly, Volume 15 1/2016, pages 31-46.

[3] Transparency International, “Corruption Risks in Hungarian Sports Financing”, page 41.

[4] Commission Decision of 9 November 2011, SA.31722 – Hungary - Supporting the Hungarian sport sector via tax benefit scheme, paras 2-3.

[5] Ibid., paras 88-90.

[6] Ibid., paras 15-16.

[7] Ibid., paras 28-34.

[8] Transparency International report of 22 October 2015, “Corruption Risks in Hungarian Sports Financing”, page 31.

[9] Commission Decision SA.31722, paras 37-39.

[10] The GBER applicable at the time the decision was taken was Commission Regulation No800/2008 of 6 August 2008.

[11] Commission Decision SA.31722, para 10.

[12] Ibid., para 64.

[13] Ibid., paras 95-98.

[14] Ibid., paras 86-87.

[15] See for example Commission Decision of 20 March 2013, SA.35135 Multifunktionsarena der Stadt Erfurt, para 14.

[16] Commission Decision SA.31722, para 57.

[17] Transparency International report, page 29.

[18] Ibid., page 31.

[19] Ibid., page 32. TI points out that the chairman of the Hungarian FA is CEO of the country’s biggest commercial bank and close to the Government.

[20] Commission Decision SA.31722, para 20.

[21] The TI report actually mentions the clubs as well as their youth academia. The 13 clubs are: Puskás Akadémia FC (aka Felcsút FC, the youth team of Videoton FC); Ferencváros; Újpest FC; Vasas SC; Szolnoki MÁV FC; Debreceni VSC; Diósgyőri VTK; Zalaegerszegi TE; OVI-FOCI; Illés Sport Alapítvány; Budapest Honvéd FC; Balmazújvárosi FC and; Békéscsaba 1912 Előre.

[22] Commission Decision SA.31722, paras 91-93.

[23] Transparency International report, page 38.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Ibid., page 42.

Comments (1) -

  • Colin MIEGE

    5/18/2016 5:51:33 PM | Reply

    This is a very good and deeply investigating paper.