note: Thomas Terraz is a fourth year LL.B.
candidate at the International and European Law programme at The Hague
University of Applied Sciences with a specialisation in European Law. Currently
he is pursuing an internship at the T.M.C. Asser Institute with a focus on
International and European Sports Law.
As we begin plunging into a new decade, it can be helpful to look
back and reflect on some of the most influential developments and trends from
2019 that may continue to shape international sports law in 2020 and beyond. Hence,
this piece will not attempt to recount every single sports law news item but
rather identify a few key sports law stories of 2019 that may have a continued
impact in the 2020s. The following sections are not in a particular order.More...
Editor's note: Sofia Balzaretti is a Graduate research assistant and a PhD candidate at
the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) where she is writing a thesis on the Protection against Gender Stereotypes in
International Law. In addition to research in human rights and feminist
legal theory, she has also carried out some research in legal philosophy and on
the relationship between gender and the law.
Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), the monitoring body of track and
field athletics, regularly submitted South African middle distance runner and
Olympic gold medalist Mokgadi Caster Semenya to sex verification tests when it
began questioning her sexual characteristics and speculating whether her body
belonged on the Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) spectrum. DSD Syndrome is often
defined as an “intersex condition” which affects the clear development of
either/or genitalia, gonads and chromosomes into one distinctive sex or
another. The spectrum of the intersex condition is particularly wide, and the
disorder can sometimes be minimal - some cases of female infertility can actually
be explained by an intersex condition.
The IAAF deemed the
controversial sex verification tests necessary on the grounds that it was
required to prove Semenya did not have a “medical condition” which could give
her an “unfair advantage”. It was eventually found that, because of an intersex
trait, Semenya did have abnormally high levels of testosterone for a woman,
which, in the IAAF’s opinion, justified a need for regulatory hormonal adjustments
in order for her to keep competing in the women’s category. The IAAF also funded
research to determine how ‘hyperandrogenism’ affects athletic performance. In 2018,
it issued Eligibility Regulations on Female Classification (“Athlete with
Differences of Sexual Development”) for events from 400m to the mile, including
400m, hurdles races, 800m and 1’500m. The IAAF rules indicated that in case of
an existing high level of testosterone, suppression or regulation by
chemotherapy, hormonal castration, and/or iatrogenic irradiation was mandatory
in order to take part in these events.
Semenya and her
lawyers challenged the IAAF Regulations in front of the CAS, who, in a very
controversial decision, deemed the Regulations a necessary, reasonable
and proportionate mean “of achieving the aim of what is described as the
integrity of female athletics and for the upholding of the ‘protected class’ of
female athletes in certain events” (§626). More...