Study on risk assessment and management and prevention of conflicts of interest in the prevention and fight against betting-related match-fixing in the EU 28 (2014)
Study commissioned by the European Commission (DG Education and Culture)
This EU-wide comparative study examines regulations and self-regulatory arrangements governing risk management and conflict of interest prevention and scrutinizes whether and how they are enforced at both national and cross-border level. At present, several EU Member States have adopted regulations to ban certain types of bets that pose particular risks to the integrity of sport, such as live bets, bets on sporting events involving minors, negative bets (e.g. yellow cards or penalties) or bets on partial results of a game. In addition, rules to avoid conflicts of interest have been introduced by regulations in the Member States and self-regulatory arrangements by sports organizations and betting operators. These measures, for example, prohibit athletes, coaches, and sport officials from betting or disclosing inside-information on sports events in which they participate. Similar rules may prevent betting operators’ employees from betting on their own products.