Dr Jonathan Kwik


  • Department:
  • Research strand: Regulation in the public interest: Disruptive technologies in peace and security
  • Main fields of interest: Artificial Intelligence International Humanitarian Law Public International Law


Jonathan Kwik is a researcher in international law at the Asser Institute attached to the ELSA Lab Defence project. His specialisation is in the laws governing the conduct of hostilities and artificial intelligence (AI). He obtained his doctorate (cum laude) from the University of Amsterdam on the lawful use of AI-embedded weapons at the operational level, under Profs. Tom van Engers, Terry Gill and Harmen van der Wilt. He holds a Master of Laws degree (cum laude) from the University of Groningen in international criminal law and criminology, and a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of Groningen in international law.

He currently sits as a member of the Board of Experts of the Asia-Pacific Journal of International Humanitarian Law (APJIHL). He is an academic partner of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and has worked together with the ICRC on many occasions in matters of research, policy discussions, and dissemination events. He taught international humanitarian law and public international law at the Soegijapranata Catholic University in Semarang, Indonesia. He has published extensively in the fields of international humanitarian law, targeting law, AI modelling, (international) criminal responsibility and post-conflict reconciliation.


Kwik J, 'The Scope of an Autonomous Attack', in C. Kwan, L. Lindström, D. Giovannelli, K. Podiņš, D. Štrucl, CyCon 2024: Over the Horizon (2024, NATO CCD COE, Tallinn), pp 191-206, https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2024/05/CyCon_2024_book.pdf#page=199.

Kwik J, 'Is wearing these sunglasses an attack? Obligations under IHL related to anti-AI countermeasures' (2024) International Review of the Red Cross. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1816383124000067.

Kwik J, Kihara-Hunt A and Thynne K, 'From theology to technology: a call for IHL ambassadors in the Asia-Pacific region', (2024) Humanitarian Law and Policy, https://blogs.icrc.org/law-and-policy/2024/03/28/from-theology-to-technology-a-call-for-ihl-ambassadors-in-the-asia-pacific-region/?_hsmi=300245351.

Kwik J, ‘The Conceptual Roots of the Criminal Responsibility Gap in Autonomous Weapon Systems’ (2023) 24(1) Melbourne Journal of International Lawhttps://law.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/4816367/Kwik.pdf.

Kwik J and van Engers T, ‘Performance or Explainability? A Law of Armed Conflict Perspective’ in Angelos Kornilakis and others (eds), Artificial Intelligence and Normative Challenges: International and Comparative Legal Perspectives (Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023), https://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-031-41081-9_14.

Giannini A and Kwik J, ‘Negligence Failures and Negligence Fixes. A Comparative Analysis of Criminal Regulation of AI and Autonomous Vehicles’ (2023) 34 Criminal Law Forum 43 https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10609-023-09451-1.

Zurek T, Kwik J and van Engers T, ‘Model of a Military Autonomous Device Following International Humanitarian Law’ (2023) 25 Ethics and Information Technology 15 https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10676-023-09682-1.

Kwik J, ‘Mitigating the Risk of Autonomous Weapon Misuse by Insurgent Groups’ (2022) 12 Laws 5 https://www.mdpi.com/2075-471X/12/1/5.

Kwik J, Zurek T and van Engers T, ‘Designing International Humanitarian Law into Military Autonomous Devices’ in Nirav Ajmeri, Andreasa Morris Martin and Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu (eds), Coordination, Organizations, Institutions, Norms, and Ethics for Governance of Multi-Agent Systems XV: International Workshop, COINE 2022, virtual event, May 9, 2022 : revised selected papers (Springer 2022) https://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-031-20845-4_1.

Zurek T and others, ‘Can a Military Autonomous Device Follow International Humanitarian Law?’ in E Francesconi, G Borges and C Sorge (eds), Legal Knowledge and Information Systems - JURIX 2022: The Thirty-fifth Annual Conference, Saarbrücken, Germany, 14-16 December 2022 (IOS Press 2022) https://ebooks.iospress.nl/doi/10.3233/FAIA220479.

Kwik J, ‘A Practicable Operationalisation of Meaningful Human Control’ (2022) 11 Laws 43 https://doi.org/10.3390/laws11030043.

Kwik J and Van Engers T, ‘Algorithmic Fog of War: When Lack of Transparency Violates the Law of Armed Conflict’ (2021) 2 Journal of Future Robot Life 43 https://www.medra.org/servlet/aliasResolver?alias=iospress&doi=10.3233/FRL-200019.

Kwik J, ‘The Road to Ongwen: Consolidating Contradictory Child Soldiering Narratives in International Criminal Law’ (2020) 1 Asia Pacific Journal of International Humanitarian Law 135.

Dewi YTN, Kwik J, Sunarimaningsih YT and Susanti BT, ‘Preservation as Reconciliation: The Value of Raising Awareness on Cultural Property in Post-Conflict Ambon’ (2020) 11 International Journal of Conservation Science 1127.

Pratomo E and Kwik J, ‘Good Agreements Make Good Neighbours: Settlements on Maritime Boundary Disputes in South East Asia’ (2020) 117 Marine Policy 103943 https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0308597X19308929.

Dewi YTN and Kwik J, ‘The Baku Bae Movement’ (2019) 7 Journal of Law, Religion and State 243 https://brill.com/view/journals/jlrs/7/3/article-p243_243.xml.

Dewi YTN, Kwik J and Watloly A, ‘The Strategic Role of Lembaga Adat Negeri in the Fulfilment of Victims’ Rights to Reparation in Post-Conflict Ambon’ (2017) 1 Udayana Journal of Law and Culture 157 https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/UJLC/article/view/32180.

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