Dr Ulad Belavusau

Senior researcher

  • Department:
  • Research strand: In the public interest: accountability of the state and the prosecution of crimes
  • Main fields of interest: Anti-Discrimination Law Comparative Constitutional law EU Law Human Rights Law and Society Studies Politics of Memory


Dr. Uladzislau Belavusau is Senior Researcher in European Law at the T.M.C. Asser Institute in The Hague, under secondment from the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands). Previously, he was Assistant Professor in EU law and human rights at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (2011-2015). He holds a Ph.D. from the European University Institute (Florence, Italy) and an LL.M. from the Collège d’Europe (Bruges, Belgium). His research and teaching cover various areas of EU (especially constitutional and anti-discrimination) law, human rights and memory politics.

Dr. Belavusau has held visiting research fellowships at the University of California at Berkeley (Berkeley, USA), the Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Heidelberg, Germany), Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy), European University Institute (Florence, Italy), York University (Toronto, Canada), Tel Aviv University (Israel) and University of Warsaw (Poland). In addition, he has guest lectured at the Amsterdam University CollegeTilburg University, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Hague Academy of International Law (the Netherlands), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), York University (Canada), Masaryk University (Czechia), Central European University (Hungary), Academy of European Law in Trier (Germany), IDC Herzliya (Israel) and, for several years continuously, at the LUISS Guido Carli University in Rome (Italy).

Currently, Dr. Belavusau leads the Dutch team in the international MEMOCRACY consortium (The Challenge of Populist Memory Politics for Europe: Towards Effective Responses to Militant Legislation on the Past), that was awarded a grant (2021-2024) from the Volkswagen Foundation. During 2016-2019, he was the Principal Investigator for the Dutch team in the  MELA consortium ('Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspectives'), sponsored by the EU research grant HERA (Humanities in the European Research Area). In 2015, the International Association of Labour Law Journals conferred him Marco Biagi Award for the best article in labour law (published in Columbia Journal of European Law). Dr. Belavusau is the author of a monograph “Freedom of Speech” (Routledge, 2013), as well as a co-editor of three books “Law and Memory" (Cambridge University Press, 2017), "EU Anti-Discrimination Law" (Oxford: Hart, 2018) and "Constitutionalism under Stress" (Oxford University Press, 2020). In addition to his academic work, Dr. Belavusau delivered legal advice and expert opinions to national and international organizations, including EU institutions, OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations. 



Edited volumes

Articles, case-notes and working papers

  • Historocal Imagery and Mnemonic Constitutionalism in BelarusReview of Central and Eastern Europeal Law (forthcoming in 2024). 
  • Rien que des mots: Counteracting Homophobic Speech in European and U.S. Law (with Natalie Alkiviadou), International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 21, 4, 2021. 374-400.
  • Memory Laws and Memory Wars in Poland, Russia and Ukraine (with Aleksandra Gliszczynska-Grabias and Maria Mälksoo), Jahrbuch des öffentlichen Rechts, 69, 2021. 95-117.
  • Mnemonic Constitutionalism in Central and Eastern Europe (with Aleksandra Gliszczynska-Grabias), European Papers, 5, 3, 2020. 1231-1246.
  • The NH Case: On the "Wings of Words" in EU Anti-Discrimination Law, European Papers, 5, 2, 2020. 1001-1020.
  • Mnemonic Constitutionalism and Rule of Law in Hungary and RussiaInterdisciplinary Journal of Populism, 1, 1, 2020. 16-29.
  • After the Celebration: Marriage Equality in EU Law post-Coman in Eight Questions and Some Further Thoughts (with Dimitry Kochenov), Maastricht Journal of European & Comparative Law, 27, 5, 2020. 549-572. 
  • The Remarkable Rise of "Law and Historical Memory" in Europe: Theorising Tendencies and Prospects in Recent Literature (with Aleksandra Gliszczynska-Grabias), Journal of Law and Society, 47, 2, 2020. 325-338. 
  • Same-Sex Spouses: More Free Movement but What about Marriage? (with Dimitry Kochenov), Common Market Law Review, 57, 1, 2020. 227-242. 
  • The Rise of Memory Laws in Poland: An Adequate Tool to Counter Historical Disinformation?, Security and Human Rights, 29, 2019. 36-54.
  • A Bird's Eye View on EU Anti-Discrimination Law: the Impact of the 2000 Equality Directives (with Kristin Henrard), German Law Journal, 5, 20, 2019. 614-636.
  • Coming up Short: Police-women and Indirect Height Discrimination in EU Law, International Labour Rights Case Law, 4, 2018. 218-222.
  • La criminalisation de l'expression historique en Pologne : la loi memorielle de 2018 (avec Anna  Wójcik), Archives de politique criminelle, 40, 2018. 175-188. 
  • Memory Laws: Mapping A New Subject in Comparative Law and Transitional Justice (with Aleksandra Gliszczynska-Grabias), T.M.C. Asser Institute Research Paper, 3, 2017. 3-28.
  • Introductory Note to Perinçek v. Switzerland (2015): Judgement of the Grand Chamber (ECtHR), International Legal Materials, 55, 2016. 627-629
  • Towards EU Sexual Risk Regulation: Restrictions on Blood Donation as Ingringement of Active Citizenship, European Journal of Risk Regulation, 7, 4, 2016. 801-809.
  • Kirchberg Dispensing the Punishment: Inflicting “Civil Death” on Prisoners in Onuekwere (C-387/12) and M.G. (C-400/12) (with Dimitry Kochenov), European Law Review, 41, 4, 2016. 557-577.
  • On the ‘Entry’ Options for the ‘Right to Love’: Federalizing Litigation Opportunities for LGBT Plaintiffs in Europe” (with Dimitry Kochenov), EUI Working Paper, 9, 2016. 1-16.
  • Az emlékezettörvények és a szólásszabadság: A történelem jogi szabályozása az európai jogban (translated into Hungarian), In Medias Res, 2, 2015. 248-269.
  • A Penalty for Homophobia from EU Non-Discrimination Law: Asociatia ACCEPT, Columbia Journal of European Law, 21, 2 2015. 353-381. 

Marco Biagi Award for the best paper in labour law from the International Association of Labour Law Journals.

  • Sex beyond the Internal Market: Towards EU Sexual Citizenship, EUI Working Paper, 6, 2015. 1-18.
  • Hate Speech and Constitutional Democracy in Eastern Europe: Transitional and Militant?, Israel Law Review, 47, 1, 2014. 27-61.
  • Historical Revisionism in Comparative Perspective: Law, Politics, and Surrogate Mourning, EUI Working Paper, 12, 2013. 1-31.
  • Commission v. Hungary: On Age Discrimination and Beating Dead Dogs, Common Market Law Review, 50, 4, 2013. 1145–1160.
  • Fighting Hate Speech through EU Law, Amsterdam Law Forum, 4,1, 2012. 20-45.
  • Baltic Interests before the European Court of Justice, in Tatjana Evas (ed.), European Integration from the Baltic Perspective, RECON Report, 2011. 66-77.
  • Art, Pornography and Foucauldian Reconstruction of Comparative Law,Maastricht Journal of European & Comparative Law, 17, 3, 2010. 252-280.
  • Instrumentalisation of Freedom of Expression in Postmodern Legal Discourses, European Journal of Legal Studies, 3, 1, 2010. 147-170.
  • Sex in the Union: EU Law, Taxation and the Adult Industry, European Law Reporter, 4, 2010. 144-150.
  • A Dernier Cri From Strasbourg: An Ever Formidable Challenge of Hate Speech, European Public Law, 16, 3, 2010. 373-389.
  • Judicial Epistemology of Free Speech through the Lenses of Ancient Rhetoric, International Journal for the Semiotics of Law, 23, 2, 2010. 165-183.
  • From Lëtzebuerg to Luxembourg: EU Law, Non-Discrimination and Pregnancy, European Law Reporter, 2, 2010. 45-49.
  • The Case of Laval in the Context of the Post-Enlargement EC Law Development, German Law Journal, 9, 12, 2008. 1279-1308.

Book chapters

  • “Law and the Politics of Memory", in Maria Mälksoo (ed.), Handbook on the Politics of Memory, Edward Elgar, 2023, 65-80.
  • "Rule of Law and Constitutionalisation of Memory Politics in Hungary and Russia", in Martin Belov (ed.), Rule of Law in Flux, Routledge, 2022. 87-107.
  • "Memory Laws" (with Marina Bán), in Bloomsbury History: Theory and Method, 2022 [an online educational resource https://www.bloomsburyhistorytheorymethod.com/].
  • "Academic Legacy of Wojciech Sadurski, Rule of Law, and Mnemonic Constitutionalism in Central and Eastern Europe" (with A. Gliszczynska-Grabias), in U. Belavusau & A. Gliszczynska-Grabias (eds.), Constitutionalism Under StressOxford University Press, 2020. 1-17.
  • Posponer los cambios de nombre de las calles tras la transicion de la democracia: lecciones legales de Polonia” (con Anna Wójcik), in Jordi GUIXÉ et al. (eds), Diez años de leyes y políticas de memoria (2007-2017), Ediciones La Catarata, Madrid, 2019. 27-39.
  • "The Impact of the 2000 Equality Directives on EU Anti-Discrimination Law: Achievements and Pitfalls" (with Kristin Henrard), in U. Belavusau & K. Henrard (eds.), EU Anti-Discrimination Law Beyond Gender, Oxford: Hart, 2018. 1-37.
  • "Memory Laws: Mapping a New Subject in Comparative Law and Transitional Justice" (with Aleksandra Gliszczynska), in U. Belavusau & A. Gliszczynska-Grabias (eds.), Law and Memory: Towards Legal Governance of History, Cambridge University Press, 2017. 1-26.
  • “EU Sexual Citizenship: Sex Beyond the Internal Market”, in Dimitry Kochenov (ed.), EU Citizenship and Federalism: The Role of Rights, Cambridge University Press, 2017. 417-442.
  • "Pornografia i Prawo: od Drugiego Przykazania do Pierwszej Poprawki”, in Mateusz M. Bieczynski & Andrzej Jakubowski (eds.), Prawo wobec erotyki w sztuce oraz pornografii, Silva Rerum, 2016. 77-122 (in Polish).
  • “Federalizing Litigation Opportunities for LGBT Plaintiffs in Europe” (with Dimitry Kochenov), in Koen Slootmaeckers, Peter Vermeersch & Heleen Touquet (eds.), The EU Enlargement and Gay Politics: The Impact of Eastern Enlargement On Rights, Activism and Prejudice, Palgrave, 2016. 69-96. 
  • "Arte, Pornografia e a Reconstrução Foucaultiano do Direito Comparado”, in José Adércio Leite Sampaio (ed.), Liberdade de Expressão no Século XXI, Del Rey, 2016. 185-227 (translated into Portuguese).
  • “Memory Laws and Freedom of Speech: Governance of History in European Law”, in András Koltay (ed.), Comparative Perspectives on The Fundamental Freedom of Expression, Wolters Kluwer, 2015. 537-558.
  • “Experts in Hate Speech Cases: Towards a Higher Standard of Proof in Strasbourg?”, in Lukasz Gruszczynski & Wouter Werner (eds.), Deference in International Courts and Tribunals: Standard of Review and Margin of Appreciation, Oxford University Press, 2014. 254-271.
  • “Anti-Roma Hate Speech in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland”, in Morag Goodwin & Paul De Hert (eds.), European Roma Integration Efforts – A Snapshot, Brussels University Press, 2013. 141-181.
  • “Fighting Hate Speech through EU Law”, in Evelyn Ellis & Kristín Benediktsdóttir (eds.), Equality into Reality: Action for Diversity and Non-Discrimination, University of Iceland Press, 2012. 189-204.
  • The Emerging Concepts of Social Rights in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, Prague Yearbook of Comparative Law 2010, 2011. 137-157.

Encyclopaedic entries

  • Legislative and Judicial Politics of LGBT Rights in the European Union, in Don Haider-Markel (ed.), Oxford Encyclopedia of LGBT Politics and Policy, Oxford University Press, 2021. 1-14.
  • Hate Speech, in Raine Grote, Rüdiger Wolfrum & Frauke Lachenmann (eds.), The Max Plank Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law, Oxford University Press, 2017.
  • Pornography, in Andreas Joh. Wiesand, Kalliopi Chainoglou, Anna Sledzinska-Simon, Yvonne Donders (eds.), Culture and Human Rights – The Wroclaw Commentaries, De Gruyter, 2016.

Book reviews

  • “On Ephemeral Memory Politics, Conservationist International Law and (In-)alienable Value of Art in Lucas Lixinski’s Legalized Identities: Cultural Heritage Law and the Shaping of Transitional Justice (Cambridge University Press, 2021)", Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies, 25, 1, 2022. 200-211.
  • Book review of Moshe Cohen-Eliya & Iddo Porat, Proportionality and Constitutional Culture (Cambridge University Press, 2013), Common Market Law Review, 51, 4, 2014. 1305-1307. 

Articles in media & academic blogging

A short translation into Armenian is available in Aravot, 2015: http://www.aravot.am/2015/11/10/627279/ 

Policy advice 

  • Adopting a Memory Law on the Dutch Slavery Past?T.M.C. Asser Institute Centre for International & European Law (a study prepared for the Advisory Board Dialogue Group on the Slavery Past and the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations), 2021. 1-33.
  • De aanpak van extremistische sprekers in verschillende Europese lidstaten (with Berenice Boutin, Rumyana Grozdanova, Marloes van Noorloos & Christophe Paulussen), ICCT / Asser, 2019. 1-42.
  • Street Renaming after the Change of Political Regime: Legal and Policy Recommendations from Human Rights Perspective (with Anna Wójcik), T.M.C Asser Institute Policy Brief, 1, 2018. 1-9.


Publications available on SSRN:


Related news